In England, Birmingham is a main city and metropolitan region of West Midlands. Of British cities, apart from London, it is the biggest and most populated city, with a population of 1,101,360. With a population of 3.8 million, Birmingham is the second most populated metropolitan city in UK. This also makes Birmingham the 9th most populous metropolitan area in Europe.
With the Midlands expansion and following Industrial Revolution Birmingham raised to international standing in the 18thcentury which used to be a medium-sized market city in the medieval age. Birmingham was seen to be the town at the lead of international advances in technology, science and economic improvement, producing a sequence of inventions that placed many of the grounds of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was recognised as "the first industrial and manufacturing town in the world". Birmingham's characteristic economic profile, thru thousands of small shops working a wide variety of focused and highly skilled employments encouraged brilliant levels of creativity and innovation and produced a diverse and strong economic base for industrial success which lasted till into the final quarter of the 20th century. The industrial steam engine, considered to be the most significant innovation in British history, took place in Birmingham resulting great level of social mobility and also nurtured a culture of broad-based political radicalism, which eventually played a key role in the growth of British democracy. The Birmingham Blitz took place between the summer of 1940 to the spring of 1943, during which Birmingham was bombed seriously by the German Luftwaffe. The destruction done to the city's infrastructure, in addition to a thoughtful policy of destruction and fresh building by planners, led to widespread demolition and renovation in following years.
Service sector dominates today’s Birmingham economy. The city is a main international commercial centre and an important conveyance, retail, conference and events hub. With a GDP of $121.1 billion, its metropolitan economy is the 2ndlargest in UK. Along with this, its six universities mark it as the biggest centre of higher education in the country apart from London. Birmingham's major cultural institutes, the Birmingham Royal Ballet, the Library of Birmingham, the Birmingham Repertory Theatre, the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra and the Barber Institute of Fine Arts have international recognition. In UK, Birmingham is the fourth-most visited city.
With the notion of the Football League and lawn tennis, Birmingham's sporting legacy can be fondled internationally, together originating from here. Aston Villa which has earned seven league titles and one European Cup is the most successful football club of Birmingham City. The city has a nickname of Brum by which its folks are named Brummies. There is a characteristic Brummie accent and parlance.